They have received little attention in comparison with other forms of mass communication. Berger points out we have been taught to consider humour unimportant, including by literary scholarship. In the last twenty-one years cartoons and cartoonists have been the focus of a number of doctoral dissertations. These have included a study of the role and function of metaphors as argument in editorial cartoons; a content analysis of international political cartoons as a rhetorical medium; an attempt to establish a theoretical framework for the sociological investigation of cartoons; the investigation of the relationship between a leading cartoonist and publisher; and an analysis of the role of the political cartoon during wartime.
Indeed, as will be seen in what follows, very often cartoons can be deeply serious, whilst at other times the humour is a key to their import as visual and textual satire. The major focus in this study has been on cartoons published in the newspaper and magazine press of both the United Kingdom and the Federal Republic of Germany. These cartoons, appearing in major dailies, weeklies, and monthlies in each country, have contributed — sometimes in no small way — to the overall reporting and perception of the other country in the printed medium.
They have been published as editorial or pocket cartoons, as visual articles in their own right, or have illustrated editorial articles, comment or analyses. Likewise included in this study have been cartoons first published or reproduced in books.
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Although they form the minority of images, they are equally significant as information-bearers and transmitters and should be accorded no less an impact. They are exposed in many cases to as substantial a readership, yet enjoy a permanence in print which is not the preserve of the same images published in the ephemeral press.
Whilst the significance of such imagery should not be overrated in determining or influencing public opinion and the perception of a national otherness, they nonetheless form part of a total media package, perhaps at times in conflict with its other constituent elements but also frequently reinforcing in static visual terms what is expressed in written text or the moving image.
It is therefore necessary to narrow the field. Print media cartoons alone have been considered for the primary literature of this study, in order to set genre limits. Excluded have been comics, animated cartoons, multiframe newspaper jokes and strip cartoons with one or two exceptions, where these have served as editorial, political or social comment , graphic novels, humorous advertising or satirical puppetry, as these belong to different genres and would require a separate analysis.
Very little East German material has been used for this research. Such material as has been gathered was not excluded from the study as it derived from sources that were readily accessible to a West German readership. This is particularly the case with the work of Herbert Sandberg discussed in chapter four. However, this study does not encompass a treatment of the image of Britain in the German Democratic Republic because of the different circumstances there.
Principally, the East German state did not allow a free press, using its media, information and educational resources to pursue ideological goals, which disavowed any meaningful give-and-take with the Federal Republic in these fields. This material is satirical rather than merely humorous because it is concerned with national images. Compared with more established areas of literary scholarship, image studies have been disadvantaged by having to cope without many of the basic tools which aid research — such as comprehensive bibliographies, systematic documentation of primary sources and the like.
It could not have reached its present size if it had not been for the help offered by various librarians, collectors, practitioners, and the access often on a periodic basis to a variety of collections and archives, both in Germany and the United Kingdom. Foremost amongst these archives has been the Pressedokumentation des Deutschen Bundestage s in Bonn, whose Director Walther Keim first established a systematic cartoon archive of predominately German press cuttings in the mids, organized thematically by featured country, issue, and personality.
A significantly large number of cartoons has been gathered from various published sources, which are identified in the text. From this collection of primary texts a selection of some thousand cartoons was made for each country, which formed a sample for closer analysis and research. The images referred to in the course of this study are drawn from this sample. A small number were chosen because they displayed unique or innovative interpretative or symbolic qualities.
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Image studies have traditionally focussed on canonical literary texts in their analyses of national auto- and heteroimages. Thus, the analysis of national symbolism that is central to the imagological method can be applied to a medium in which the employment of such symbolism is central to the creative process. This study investigates both sides of the equation to obtain a more balanced, comparative approach. Whilst there have been several studies of international relations using cartoons as a basis for historical and cultural analysis, precious little academic research has been specifically undertaken on the use of national images in cartoons.
May it suffice at this stage to quote Professor Keim, who asserts that the cartoon provides an especial resource for the investigation of public perceptions, prejudice and opinions:. Where they are known, details of the artist, place, date and page of publication and reproduction are given in the text.
The semantic bias inherent in this study is towards England and the English in using the term British. For example, all the British newspapers cited in this study are those published in England.
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This dissertation has been written and updated in accordance with the guidelines set out in the MHRA Style Guide and The Oxford Manual of Style , giving preference to the former where there are stylistic differences. This comparative study of the image of Germans and Germany in British press cartoons and Britain and the British in German press cartoons since has been conducted as an imagological investigation. In what follows the imagological approach and its key concepts will be examined as the analytical foundation of my research. In the first section of the chapter the nature of Image Studies, its aims and methodology are explained.
These concepts bear directly upon the nature of cartooning and its peddling of social and — particularly relevant for this study — national images. In conclusion, stereotyping will be analysed as a discursive tool, with the focus here on the way it functions rhetorically and aesthetically in a communicative medium such as cartoons.
Attention to the historicity of images has led to imagologists being accused of having a political, prejudicial agenda.
Imagologists have sought to highlight the political context of their work and not to pretend to illusory objectivity. For irrational concepts such as that of genetically-determined national character are demystified by analysing the reasons for their very existence.
Any comparative image study should serve to promote amity and better understanding between nations by drawing attention to the socio-cultural differences and similarities between them and the way they think about themselves and each other. The one cannot exist without the other as they invest each other with meaning. Placing an image in its cultural and historical context is seen as an essential component of an integrative analysis, not only providing a satisfactory answer to questions about function, particularly with respect to national images, but also contributing to greater international understanding:.
The imagological method involves more than categorizing and cataloguing. It aims to demonstrate how important images are in international relations and to draw conclusions about those who develop and use these images. Likewise, an imagological study needs to be limited to a specific, easily definable area, as the conclusions will be different, according to the specific audience for whom a category of works was originally designed.
In the following, definitions are developed for each of these that will govern their use in this thesis. Its etymology reflects some of the theoretical difficulties with the term. In everyday speech, a stereotype is a caricature of group characteristics, a perception which exaggerates the differences between the stereotyped group and others. This definition is largely due to the theoretical understanding of the phenomenon developed in the first half of the twentieth century. However, the socio-psychological investigation of the stereotype has continued apace, leading in recent years to a significant reappraisal.
For the most part we do not first see, and then define, we define first and then see. In the great blooming, buzzing confusion of the outer world we pick out what our culture has already defined for us, and we tend to perceive that which we have picked out in the form stereotyped for us by our culture. Yet he argued that they fulfilled an important function in helping us cope with and make sense of our environment:.
For the real environment is altogether too big, too fleeting for direct acquaintance.
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We are not equipped to deal with so much subtlety, so much variety, so many permutations and combinations. And although we have to act in that environment, we have to reconstruct it on a simpler model before we can manage with it. He argued, further, that the system of stereotypes not only serves to create order and clarity for us but is also closely bound up with our individual identity:. It is the guarantee of our self-respect; it is the projection upon the world of our own sense of our own value, our own position and our own rights.
The stereotypes are, therefore, highly charged with the feelings that are attached to them. They are the fortress of our tradition, and behind its defenses we can continue to feel ourselves safe in the position we occupy. He saw stereotypes as solidified but modifiable and as playing an important part in making decisions easier.
Studies from the s to the s focused on identifying the defining properties of stereotypes and became less value-free.
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Stereotypes were described by researchers as rigid, inflexible or persistent beliefs, images or representations; or as over-generalizations which were either wholly factually inaccurate or contained only a kernel of truth. However, few attempts were made to study accuracy empirically and those that did were poorly done or open to multiple interpretations.
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